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What is Diabetes: Separating the Facts from Fiction

This article originally published on Get Healthy Stay Healthy.

Diabetes affects an astounding 29.1 million Americans. An additional 86 million have blood sugar levels high enough to qualify as pre-diabetes. It is a serious chronic health condition, which has caused more U.S. deaths than breast cancer and HIV/AIDS combined. Even so, there is a prevailing perception that diabetes is not a serious disease. And many people may feel embarrassed, ashamed, or guilty for having diabetes.

Diabetes-Associated Stigma

An online social media survey by the diaTribe Foundation—whose mission is to provide insight into diabetes—found that people with the disease often blame themselves for having caused it. And of 5,000 participants in a diaTribe survey, 76% of people with type 1 diabetes, and 52% of people with type 2 diabetes reported feeling social stigma has had a negative impact on them.

People with diabetes are often stigmatized by the perception that diabetes is a disease for the obese and unhealthy. Survey responders who reported feeling stigmatized also reported a sense of personal failure. As many as 83% of parents of children with type 1 diabetes reported feeling blamed for causing their child’s disease.

Diabetes-related stigma can impact psychological and physical health. Studies have shown that health stigma is associated with depression, low self-esteem, embarrassment, loneliness and anger. People with diabetes often feel judged on what they eat, how they look, and how much they exercise. In turn, they may feel uncomfortable in making food choices in front of others. Many reported doing certain things to hide their condition, such as avoiding social activities, skipping their medicines, not monitoring blood glucose regularly, or injecting insulin only in public toilets or at home.

Setting the Record Straight

Knowing the facts about the disease may help to diffuse the stigma. Here are some important things to understand about diabetes:

  • Diabetes is a serious disease. It was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2010. Diabetes increases your risk of having heart disease or stroke. Other complications may include kidney failure, nerve damage, eye problems and foot problems
  • Eating too much does not cause diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known. However, genetics and environmental factors may play a role. Type 2 diabetes is caused by family history and lifestyle factors 
  • Risk factors for type 2 diabetes go beyond obesity. Though weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, you will not develop it just because you are overweight. Many people who have diabetes are at a normal weight, while some people who are obese might never get diabetes. Other risk factors include: age, race, physical inactivity, and high cholesterol
  • Certain conditions can cause diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a common condition due to hormone changes in pregnant women. Other diseases and certain medications may also cause diabetes, including steroids, medicines to treat mood and immunosuppressive agents (used for transplants)

What You Can Do

Even though people with diabetes may experience stigma, there are ways to manage it:

  • If you have diabetes, know that you have the power to make your life healthier, for longer. Speak to your doctor about what you can do and learn as much as you can about the disease and how it can be best managed.
  • Consider joining a support group to help you make the necessary changes and overcome the negative stereotypes
  • Rather than hide your condition, maintain a positive attitude and ask friends and family to help you manage diabetes
  • Speak up about diabetes and educate others. Keep in mind that you cannot change everyone’s minds in one day
  • If someone you know has diabetes, be supportive by learning about the disease and encouraging them to take their medications, stay fit, and see their doctors regularly

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References:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014 National diabetes statistics report. Accessed: November 4, 2015.
2. American Diabetes Association. Statistics about diabetes. Accessed: November 4, 2015.
3. American Diabetes Association. Diabetes myths. Accessed: November 4, 2015.
4. Wolf A and Liu N. The numbers of shame and blame: how stigma affects patients and diabetes management. diaTribe Web site. Accessed: November 4, 2015.
5. Schabert J, Browne JL, Mosely K, Speight J. Social stigma in diabetes. Patient. 16 January 2013; 6(1): 1-10.
6. American Diabetes Association. What is gestational diabetes? Accessed: November 4, 2015.
7. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Causes of diabetes. Accessed: November 4, 2015.