ABOUT THIS STUDY
To be eligible for the study, subjects must satisfy all the following criteria:
1. Histologically documented thyroid cancer with metastases.
2. Failure of 131I to control the disease or 131I is not an appropriate therapy (eg, due to lack of iodine uptake by the tumor).
3. No expectation of further effects of prior anticancer therapy.
4. At least 1 target lesion, as defined by RECIST (Appendix C), that has not been irradiated. New lesions that have developed in a previously irradiated field may be used as sites of measurable disease assuming all other criteria are met. All target lesions must have a unidimensional diameter of at least 2 cm. (1 cm is acceptable for spiral CT scans if the reconstruction algorithm is 0.5 cm). Baseline measurements/evaluations must be completed within 4 weeks prior to treatment.
5. Adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function documented within 14 days prior to treatment as documented by:
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC, calculated as the absolute number of neutrophils and bands) ≥1.5 x 109 cells/L
- Platelets ≥100 x 109 cells /L
- AST and ALT ≤2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN), unless there are liver metastases in which case AST and ALT ≤5.0 x ULN
- Total bilirubin ≤1.5 x ULN
- Serum creatinine ≤1.5 x ULN or calculated creatinine clearance ≥60 mL/min
- Urinary protein <2+ by urine dipstick. If dipstick is ≥2+ then a 24-hour urine collection can be done and the patient may enter only if urinary protein is <2 g per 24 hours
6. Age ≥18 years.
7. ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 (see Appendix D)
8. No evidence of preexisting uncontrolled hypertension as documented by 2 baseline blood pressure readings taken at least 1 hour apart. The baseline systolic blood pressure readings must be ≤140, and the baseline diastolic blood pressure readings must be ≤90. Patients whose hypertension is controlled by antihypertensive therapies are eligible.
9. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy test within 7 days prior to treatment.
10. Written and voluntary informed consent.
Subjects with one or more of the following criteria are ineligible for this study:
1. Central lung lesions involving major blood vessels (arteries or veins). (Central
lesions that maintain the structural integrity of vessels have the potential to bleed
if the tumor lesion undergoes necrosis. MRI or CT angiography should be used in any
case where there is any question as to whether blood vessels are involved.)
2. History of hemoptysis
3. Gastrointestinal abnormalities including:
- inability to take oral medication
- requirement for intravenous alimentation
- prior surgical procedures affecting absorption including gastric resection
- treatment for active peptic ulcer disease in the past 6 months
- active gastrointestinal bleeding, unrelated to cancer, as evidenced by
hematemesis, hematochezia or melena in the past 3 months without evidence of
resolution documented by endoscopy or colonoscopy.
- malabsorption syndromes.
4. Previous treatment with anti-angiogenesis agents including thalidomide, or inhibitors
of epidermoid growth factor (EGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), or
fibroblast growth factors (FGF) receptors.
5. Current use or anticipated inability to avoid use of drugs that are known potent
CYP3A4 inhibitors (ie, grapefruit juice, verapamil, ketoconazole, miconazole,
itraconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ergot derivatives, indinavir, saquinavir,
ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, and delavirdine).
6. Current use or anticipated inability to avoid use of drugs that are known CYP3A4 or
CYP1A2 inducers (ie, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, felbamate, omeprazole,
phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, rifabutin, rifampin, and St. John's wort).
7. Active seizure disorder or evidence of brain metastases.
8. A serious uncontrolled medical disorder or active infection that would impair their
ability to receive study treatment.
9. History of a malignancy (other than thyroid cancer) except those treated with curative
intent for skin cancer (other than melanoma) or in situ breast or cervical cancer or
those treated with curative intent for any other cancer with no evidence of disease
for 5 years
10. Major surgical procedure or any radiation therapy within 4 weeks of treatment.
11. Dementia or significantly altered mental status that would prohibit the understanding
or rendering of informed consent and compliance with the requirements of this
12. Patients (male and female) having procreative potential who are not using adequate
contraception or practicing abstinence
13. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
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