- The primary endpoint of the study is to evaluate the effects of a single high dose of atorvastatin versus placebo on peri-procedural myonecrosis, as measured by troponin T (TnT), during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
- Secondary endpoints include the measurements of other biomarkers of myocyte injury (CK, CK-MB) and inflammation (CRP).
- Other secondary endpoints include the relative angiographic efficacy of atorvastatin versus placebo on the post PCI growth of tissue level perfusion circumference and the post PCI growth of tissue level perfusion brightness using digital subtraction angiography.
I. Selection and Number of Patients
The study subjects are to be selected from those patients presenting to the BIDMC for cardiac catheterization. Eligible patients will be identified in the cardiac catheterization holding area prior to their procedure. After obtaining informed consent, patients will be randomized to a single dose of atorvastatin or placebo, which will be administered in the holding area about 4 hours prior to the procedure. There will be a total of 150 subjects enrolled in the study. There are a total of 2500 PCIs performed at the BIDMC per year, a third of which are for ACS. We anticipate that 30-40% of patients with ACS will be eligible for study participation.
II. Informed Consent
Informed consent will be obtained from all individuals prior to enrolment in the study according to local Internal Review Board guidelines.
III. Pretreatment Data Collection
Baseline clinical data will be recorded at enrolment and will include: Subject's age, sex, weight and height, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, hypercholesterolemia (including cholesterol levels if available), the presence of coronary or peripheral artery disease and prior history of PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery. Further, all current medications will be recorded. A detailed angina history will be collected from the patient and the medical record looking for evidence of unstable angina as defined by Braunwald.
A. Study Medication
Patients will be randomly assigned to atorvastatin 80 mg po or placebo in a double-blind fashion. The study medication will be administered immediately after informed consent is obtained and the patient is randomized to a treatment group in the cardiac catheterization holding area. Given the typical waiting time between first presentation in the holding area and PCI in a non-emergent case, it is estimated that the study medication will be administered 4 hours prior to the procedure (minimal time of 2 hours). All patients will receive a single dose of study medication prior to the procedure. After the completion of the procedure, all statin therapy will be withheld until the next day. Eligible patients can then receive statin therapy according to the treating physicians' preferences. All potential adverse reactions to the study medication will be recorded.
B. Concomitant Therapy
Aspirin (325 mg/day) will be administered prior to intervention and during follow-up. Clopidogrel (300 mg or 600 mg bolus followed by 75 mg/day) will be administered post-stent deployment. It is expected that the majority of patients will receive a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor during the procedure and for 18 hours thereafter.
A. Laboratory Tests
At baseline, levels of troponin, CK and CK-MB will be obtained at the time of presentation and immediately prior to PCI. Patients with any of these serum markers above the upper limit of normal will be excluded from the study. Post-procedural enzymes will be obtained 6-8 hours after the procedure and the next morning (18-24 hours after the procedure). Patients with elevated enzymes may undergo further sampling to determine the peak enzyme rise. The peak troponin level obtained from any post-procedural blood draw will be used as the primary endpoint. Furthermore, baseline CRP levels will be obtained prior to PCI and on the next day.
B. Digital Subtraction Angiography
To quantitate the kinetics of dye entry into the myocardium, digital subtraction angiography can be used. Digital subtraction angiography will be performed at end diastole by aligning cineframe images before dye filled the myocardium with the frame in which dye first reached its peak brightness. The spine, ribs, diaphragm and the epicardial artery are then subtracted. A representative region of the myocardium is sampled that is free of overlap by epicardial arterial branches to determine the increase in the gray scale brightness of the myocardium. The circumference of the myocardial blush is measured using a handheld planimeter (Fowler, Inc). The frame count ÷ number of frames per second is used to measure the time elapsed during angiography to quantitate the rate of rise in the growth (cm/sec) and brightness (gray/sec) of myocardial blush. Blush will also be assessed visually using the TIMI myocardial perfusion grade.