- Age of or above 18 years.
- Admitted to a General Surgery Ward for elective or emergency abdominal surgery.
- Contaminated or dirty-infected surgical procedures.
- Only for cases, they will have to present symptoms and signs of a surgical site
infection (SSI) (within 0-30 days) after abdominal surgery.
- Only for controls, patients must be free of SSI after 30 days from surgery, regardless
of whether they are still in the hospital or being observed as an outpatient in the
- Age under 18 years.
- American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score of 5 or above.
- Surgical implant in place.
- Clean or clean-contaminated surgical procedures.