ABOUT THIS STUDY
- Patient is male or female.
- Patient is 65 years of age or older.
- Patient has a physical status between ASA I and III. (Appendix C).
- Patient scheduled for general anesthesia for non-cardiac surgery expected to last at least one hour.
- Patient able to communicate in English.
- Patient has signed an approved informed consent.
- Patient's age is less than 65 years
- Anesthetic duration of less than one hour expected
- Treatment of beta blockers contra-indicated
- Not a candidate for general anesthesia
- Patient requires regional anesthesia with general anesthesia.
- ASA physical status of IV or V. (Appendix C)
- Patient has known drug or alcohol abuse.
- Patient has scalp or skull abnormalities such as psoriasis, eczema, angioma, scar
tissue, burr holes, cranial implants (such as plates, shunts, etc.).
- Patient has experienced a head injury with loss of consciousness within the last year.
- Patient has known neurological and psychiatric disorder that interferes with the
patient's level of consciousness.
- Known concurrent chronic usage of psychoactive or anticonvulsive drugs within the last
90 days, or any use in the last 7 days (i.e. tricyclic antidepressants, MAO
inhibitors, lithium, SSRIs, neuroleptics, anxiolytics or antipsychotics).
- Patient has any medical condition which, in the judgment of the investigator, renders
them inappropriate for participation in this study, such as Guillen Bare syndrome
- Known hypersensitivity to the intended anesthetic agents including significant
post-operative nausea or vomiting.
- Uncontrolled hypertension (unresponsive to medication): Systolic BP > 180 mmHg or
Diastolic BP > 105 mmHg
- Pre-Op baseline heart rate < 45 beats per minute
- Weight 50% greater than ideal body weight
- Already monitored for EP or EEG, i.e., Spinal cord cases
- Actual anesthetic duration < 1 hour (assessed after emergence).
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