ABOUT THIS STUDY
1. 18-85 years old;
2. Scheduled for cardiac surgery with bypass (CABG, valve, or combined);
3. Able to provide a written informed consent;
4. Hemodynamically stable (heart rate>= 55).
1. Sick sinus syndrome or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
2. Atrio-ventricular block
3. Hypersensitivity or known allergy to dexmedetomidine
4. Hepatic disease, e.g. twice the normal level of liver enzymes
5. Atrial fibrillation within 1 preoperative month;
6. Permanent pacemaker;
7. Use of amiodarone or dexmedetomidine within the last 30 days;
8. Patients with an ejection fraction under 30% or who had severe heart failure
9. Myocardial infarction in the previ¬ous 7 days;
10. Body mass index =< 40 (BMI= mass (kg) / height (m)2);
11. Those taking clonidine within last 48 hours.
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