1. Subject must be ≥18 years of age.
2. Evidence of a personally signed and dated informed consent document indicating that
the subject or a legally acceptable representative has been informed of all pertinent
aspects of the study.
3. Subjects must have a confirmed diagnosis of serious bacterial infection, specifically
cIAI, HAP/VAP, cUTI, or BSI requiring administration of IV antibacterial therapy.
4. Subjects must have an MBL- positive Gram- negative bacteria (an Enterobacteriaceae
and/or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for which the imipenem or meropenem MIC is ≥ 4
µg/mL), that was isolated from an appropriate culture obtained within 5 days prior to
5. Female subject of childbearing potential must have a negative serum or urine pregnancy
test, with sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL.
6. Subjects who have received appropriate prior systemic antibiotic[s] for a carbapenem
non-susceptible pathogen must meet the following criteria (Note: antibiotic[s] is
considered appropriate if microbiological susceptibility test results show that all
carbapenem non-susceptible pathogens are susceptible to the systemic antibiotic[s]
1. Worsening or lack of improvement of objective symptoms or signs of infection
after at least 48 hours of antibacterial therapy Note: Symptomatic subjects (see
inclusion criteria 3 and 4) with an isolated causative pathogen that was not
susceptible to the prior systemic therapy received or who received no prior
systemic therapy are eligible for this trial.
7. Subject must be willing and able to comply with scheduled visits, treatment plan,
laboratory tests, and other study procedures.
Additional Inclusion Criteria- cIAI Subjects
1. Subject must have a study qualifying specimen obtained from an abdominal source during
a surgical intervention within the 5 days prior to study entry. Surgical intervention
includes open laparotomy, percutaneous drainage of an abscess, or laparoscopic
2. The subject has at least 1 of the following diagnosed during the surgical
- Cholecystitis with gangrenous rupture or perforation or progression of the
infection beyond the gallbladder wall;
- Diverticular disease with perforation or abscess;
- Appendiceal perforation or peri-appendiceal abscess;
- Acute gastric or duodenal perforations, only if operated on >24 hours after
- Traumatic perforation of the intestines, only if operated on >12 hours after
- Other secondary peritonitis (not primary/ spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
associated with cirrhosis or chronic ascites);
- Intra abdominal abscess (including of the liver and spleen provided that there is
extension beyond the organ with evidence of intra peritoneal involvement).
3. Subject has at least 1 of the following signs / symptoms from each of the following 2
- Group A: Evidence of systemic inflammatory response:
- Documented fever (defined as body temperature ≥38°C) or hypothermia (with a
rectal core body temperature ≤35°C);
- Elevated white blood cells (WBC) (>12000 cells/µL);
- Systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a SBP decrease of >40 mmHg;
- Increased heart rate ( >90 beats per minute [bpm]) and respiratory rate (>20
- Hypoxemia (defined as oxygen [O2] saturation
- Altered mental status.
- Group B: Physical findings consistent with intra abdominal infection, such as:
- Abdominal pain and/or tenderness, with or without rebound;
- Localized or diffuse abdominal wall rigidity;
- Abdominal mass.
Additional Inclusion Criteria - HAP/VAP Subjects
1. Onset of symptoms >48 hours after admission or inpatient care facility (for which the duration of admission was >3 days).
2. New or worsening infiltrate on chest X- ray (or computerized tomography [CT]- scan)
obtained within 48 hours prior to randomization.
3. At least 1 of the following:
• Documented fever (temperature ≥38°C) or hypothermia (rectal/core temperature ≤35°C);
• WBC ≥10,000 cells/mm3, leukopenia with total WBC ≤4500 cells/mm3, or >15% immature
neutrophils (bands) noted on peripheral blood smear.
4. At least 2 of the following:
• A new cough (or worsening of cough at Baseline);
• Production of purulent sputum or purulent endotracheal secretions;
• Auscultatory finding consistent with pneumonia/pulmonary consolidation (eg, rales,
rhonchi, bronchial breath sounds, dullness on percussion, egophony);
• Dyspnea, tachypnea, or hypoxemia (O2 saturation [pO2]
• Need for acute changes in the ventilator support status/system to enhance
oxygenation, as determined by worsening oxygenation (arterial blood gas [ABG] or pO2
in arterial blood [PaO2]/fraction of inspired O2 [FiO2]) or needed changes in the
amount of positive end expiratory pressure.
5. Subjects must have a study qualifying respiratory specimen obtained for Gram- stain
and culture within the 5 days prior to study entry. This includes a culture either of
expectorated sputum or a specimen of respiratory secretions obtained by endotracheal
aspiration in intubated subjects, or by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage
(BAL), mini BAL or protected specimen brush (PSB) sampling.
Additional Inclusion Criteria - cUTI Subjects
1. Subject had a positive urine culture within the 5 days prior to study entry,
containing ≥10^5 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL of at least 1 carbapenem non
susceptible, MBL positive Gram negative bacteria, ie, the isolate from the study
2. Subject had pyuria in the 5 days prior to study entry as determined by a midstream
clean catch or catheterized urine specimen with ≥10 white blood cells (WBCs) per high
power field on standard examination of urine sediment or ≥10 WBCs/mm3 in unspun urine.
3. Subject demonstrates either acute pyelonephritis or complicated lower UTI without
pyelonephritis as defined by the following criteria:
a. Acute pyelonephritis indicated by flank pain (which must have onset or worsened
within 7 days of enrollment) or costovertebral angle tenderness on examination and at
least 1 of the following: i) Fever, defined as body temperature ≥38°C (with or without
patient symptoms of rigor, chills, or warmth); ii) Nausea and/or vomiting. OR b.
Complicated lower UTI, as indicated by qualifying symptoms plus at least 1
complicating factor as follows: i) Qualifying symptoms: subject must have at least 2
of the following symptoms with at least 1 symptom from Group A:
• Group A symptoms include dysuria, urgency, frequency, and or suprapubic pain;
- Group B symptoms include fever (defined as body temperature ≥38°C with or without
patient symptoms of rigor, chills, warmth), nausea, and/or vomiting.
ii) Complicating factors: subject must have at least 1 of the following complicating
• Documented history of urinary retention (male subjects);
• Obstructive uropathy that is scheduled to be medically or surgically relieved during
study therapy and before the EOT;
- Functional or anatomical abnormality of the urogenital tract, including anatomic
malformations or neurogenic bladder, or with a postvoid residual urine volume of
at least 100 mL;
- Use of intermittent bladder catheterization or presence of an indwelling bladder
catheter for at least 48 hours;
- Urogenital procedure (such as cystoscopy or urogenital surgery) within the 7
Additional Inclusion Criteria - BSI Subjects
1. Subject has a confirmed diagnosis of primary BSI or catheter related BSI (CR- BSI).
2. Consecutive positive duplicate blood cultures (n=2) within 5 days prior to study entry
indicating presence of a carbapenem non- susceptible, MBL-producing Gram- negative
bacteria. Subjects with polymicrobial blood infections may be included in the study.
3. Signs and symptoms of systemic infection characterised by at least one of the
a. Chills, rigors, or fever (temperature of ≥38.0°C or ≥100.4°F); b. Elevated white
blood cell count (≥10,000/mm3) or left shift (>15% immature polymorphonuclear
Evaluation (APACHE) II score >30.
2. Subjects unlikely to respond to up to 14 days of study treatment. 3. History of serious
allergic reaction (anaphylaxis, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypersensitivity) to any systemic
antibacterial allowed per protocol.
4. Subject has previously been treated with ATM-AVI Subject with known Clostridium
difficile associated diarrhea. 5. Subjects with perinephric infection. 6. Colonization with
an MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria without signs or symptoms.
7. Estimated CrCL ?15 mL/min or anticipated requirement for dialysis during the study.
8. Hepatic disease as indicated by ALT or AST >3 x ULN at Screening. Exception: AST and/or
ALT up to 5 x ULN if these elevations are acute and directly related to the infectious
9. Bilirubin >2 x ULN, unless related to the acute infection or due to known Gilbert's
10. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) >3 x ULN. Exception: up to and related to the infectious process.
11. Absolute neutrophil count
Additional Exclusion Criteria - cIAI Subjects
1. Subject has infections limited to the hollow viscous, such as simple cholecystitis,
gangrenous cholecystitis without rupture, and simple appendicitis, or has acute suppurative
cholangitis, infected necrotizing pancreatitis, or pancreatic abscess.
2. Subject has abdominal wall abscess or small bowel obstruction without perforation or
ischemic bowel without perforation.
3. Subject has a cIAI managed by staged abdominal repair (STAR), or "open abdomen"
technique, or marsupialization. This criterion is intended to exclude subjects in whom the
abdomen is left open, particularly those for whom re operation is planned.
4. Subject who has prior liver, pancreas or small bowel transplant.
Additional Exclusion Criteria - HAP/VAP Subjects 1. APACHE II score
lung abscess, pleural empyema, or post obstructive pneumonia. 3. Subject is a recipient of
a lung or heart transplant. 4. Subjects with myasthenia gravis.
Additional exclusion criteria - cUTI Subjects
1. Subjects with suspected or confirmed complete obstruction of any portion of the
urinary tract, perinephric or intrarenal abscess, or prostatitis, or history of any
illness that, in the opinion of the investigator, may confound the results of the
study or pose additional risk in administering the study therapy to the subject.
2. Subjects with renal transplantation.
3. Subjects with a permanent urinary diversion (eg, with ileal loops, cutaneous
ureterostomy or vesicoureteral reflux).
4. Subjects who are likely to receive ongoing antibacterial drug prophylaxis after
treatment of cUTI (eg, subjects with vesico-ureteric reflux).
5. Any recent history of trauma to the pelvis or urinary tract.
6. Subjects with uncomplicated urinary tract infections (generally female subjects with
urinary frequency, urgency, or pain or discomfort without systemic symptoms or signs
Additional exclusion criteria - BSI Subjects
1. Subject has a prosthetic cardiac valve or synthetic endovascular graft. 2. Subject has a
suspected or documented medical condition with well-defined requirement for prolonged
antibiotic treatment (eg, infectious endocarditis, osteomyelitis/septic arthritis,
undrainable/undrained abscess, unremoveable/unremoved prosthetic associated infection).