ABOUT THIS STUDY
- chronic low back pain, defined as "pain in the low back area with or without leg pain above the knee limiting activities or daily routine which has been present for more than 3 months";
- a minimal average pain intensity of 3 out of 10 during the preceding week on a pain numerical rating scale;
- a minimal score of 10 points on the Oswestry disability index (ODI).
- specific spinal pathology (fracture, tumor, radiculopathy, spinal infection, etc.);
- a history of back surgery;
- a major orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular or psychiatric illness;
- low back pain is not the main pain complaint;
- currently using an exercise program to treat their LBP;
- presenting with any specific TMS/rTMS-related exclusion criteria such as previous
seizure/convulsion, cochlear implant, specific medication and pregnancy;
- previous use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.
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